Apa itu Harmonisa dan Alat Ukur Power Quality?

 

Harmonisa adalah kelipatan integer dari pada frekuensi fundamental. Pada jaringan listrik di Indonesia 50Hz adalah frekuensi fundamental atau lebih dikenal dengan harmonisa kelipatan (orde) 1. Misal untuk harmonisa dan kelipatan 3 atau disebut juga orde 3 adalah 150 Hz, begitu seterusnya untuk penghitungan kelipatan integer harmonisa listrik.

teori harmonisa

Untuk pengukuran harmonisa listrik secara detil diperlukan suatu alat khusus yaitu alat ukur power quality. Selain parameter harmonisa listrik, alat ukur power quality juga mampu mengukur dan mendeteksi dip, swell, transient,flicker, inrush current dan sebagainya.

Baca  : Hioki Power Quality Meter

 

alat ukur power quality

Alat Ukur Power Quality Meter – Hioki PQ3198

 

Secara garis besar menurut bilangan kelipatannya harmonisa dibagi menjadi beberapa macam antara lain:

1. Harmonisa Integer (bulat)
Untuk jaringan listrik dengan frekuensi 50 Hz adalah frekuensi dasar dimana kelipatannya dinamakan :

2. Harmonisa Non – Integer (tidak bulat)
Kelipatan Non-Integer dari frekuensi fundamental apapun bentuk gelombang periodik disebut Inter-harmonik misalnya 2.5th => 125 Hz
pada dasar 50 Hz.

Semua jenis harmonisa diatas dapat dengan mudah kita analisa menggunakan alat ukur kualitas daya untuk mengetahui seberapa besar dampaknya terhadap instalasi kelistrikan kita baik dari segi efisiensi dan kehandalan equipment.

Mengapa kita perlu memberi perhatian lebih nilai harmonisa listrik saat melakukan pengukuran dengan alat ukur power quality? Karena Harmonisa adalah salah satu parameter yang listrik yang bersifat merusak, yang muncul disebabkan oleh beban-beban non-linier. Beban Non-Linier ini semisal charger, inverter, lampu LED, dan lainnya. Sehingga lazim disebut bahwa problem harmonisa pada kelistrikan saat ini disebabkan oleh kemajuan teknologi dengan makin bervariasinya beban-beban non-linier.

Bagaimana cara melakukan pengukuran atau mendeteksi level harmonisa?
Sebagaimana telah disebutkan diatas, bahwa harmonics adalah salah satu Contoh dari permasalahan Kualitas Daya maka untuk mengukur dan mengecheck harmonisa pada system diperlukan pengukuran yang komprehensif dan mendetail sesuai dengan profil dari beban yang akan diukur.

Untuk mengetahui harmonisa diperlukan alat ukur power quality dengan spesifikasi yang dapat mengukur harmonisa sampai orde 50 lebih baik apabila mempunyai orde sampai dengan orde 100 atau High orde harmonics. Pengukuran High orde harmonics diperlukan karena pada era sekarang ini banyak teknologi peralatan/equipment yang menghasilkan sampai orde 100. Alat ukur power quality tersebut sangat direkomendasikan mempunyai akurasi kelas A dengan akurasi tegangan 0.1%. Pengukuran harus dilakukan oleh orang yang kompeten dan alat ukur power quality yang handal menjadi modal untuk analisa besaran harmonisa dan dampaknya dalam satu sistem ketenagalistrikan.

Harmonisa adalah suatu komponen yang mempengaruhi nilai dari efisiensi suatu sistem kelistrikan. Batasan harmonisa tegangan menurut IEEE ada di angka 3% maksimum sedangkan untuk harmonisa arus diperlukan perhitungan terlebih dahulu namun dalam beberapa literatur ada yg menyebutkan sekitar 20%. Detail bisa dilihat dari contoh tabel berikut:

 

harmonisa standard IEEE

Penjelasan lebih detail tentang apa itu Harmonisa dan alat ukur kualitas daya dan bagaimana mengukur, merekam serta menganalisa harmonisa pada system instalasi listrik menggunakan Hioki Power Quality Analyzer, silahkan request Hioki E-Presentation. Hioki Indonesia Team dengan senang hati siap berdiskusi tentang aplikasi Power Quality sesuai kebutuhan di tempat Anda.

byjhn

 

Presentasi Online Hioki

 

Hioki Power Quality Analyzer PQ3198 untuk Data Center Redundansi – Pengujian Static Transfer Switch

23 Okt 2020 : HIOKI Power Quality Analyzer PQ3198 For Data Center Redundancy Static Transfer Switch Testing

Apa itu Data Center Redundansi ?

Data center adalah fasilitas fisik yang berisi jaringan komputerisasi dan sumber penyimpanan untuk mengirimkan aplikasi dan data penting tanpa gangguan. Kunci komponen termasuk router, switch, firewall, sistem penyimpanan, server, aplikasi pengiriman . [1] Adanya peran penting dari data center, sistem dirancang melebihi kapasitas minimumnya (atau disebut dengan ‘Data Center Redundansi’) untuk memastikan kelangsungan operasi bahkan jika ada kegagalan sistem.[2] Gambar 1.0 menggambarkan 4 desain redundan untuk sistem UPS yang menyediakan daya 200 kVA ke data center dan beragam mode kegagalan. Desain 2N sepenuhnya redundan dengan dua UPS independen yang dapat mendukung aplikasi IT tanpa gangguan, sekalipun salah satunya gagal.

Gambar 1.0 Sistem UPS Redundansi Data Center UPS System dan Mode Kegagalan

Pentingnya Pengujian Static Transfer Switch (STS)

Data center membutuhkan power supply tanpa gangguan untuk memastikan data support dan aplikasi yang berkelanjutan. Transfer switch berfungsi untuk mengalihkan sumber power supply dari utilitas ke daya darurat selama ada gangguan daya. Terdapat 2 tipe dari transfer switch – Static Transfer Switch (STS) dan Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS). STS lebih disukai daripada ATS pada redundansi data center karena keuntungan yang terdapat di bawah ini (Gambar 2.0).

Gambar 2.0 Keuntungan Static Transfer Switch (STS) dibandingkan Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS)

Pengalihan sumber daya yang cepat dari STS selama gangguan daya dapat mengakibatkan penurunan tegangan atau tegangan transien karena perubahan tiba-tiba pada suplai tegangan jika STS tidak beroperasi sesuai dengan peruntukannya. Kedua peristiwa tersebut terjadi dalam durasi singkat tetapi dapat merusak mesin data center, tergantung pada tingkat keparahan, durasi, besarnya, dan kemampuan peralatan untuk menahan penurunan atau peningkatan tegangan mendadak. Oleh karena itu, pengujian STS sangat penting sebagai bentuk pemeliharaan, terutama di data center yang sepenuhnya redundan.

Hioki Power Quality Analyzer PQ3198 untuk Pengujian Static Transfer Switch (STS)

Gambar 3.0 di bawah ini menunjukkan pengaturan untuk pengujian STS dalam desain 2N data center redundansi. Hioki Power Quality Analyzer PQ3198 mengukur poin-poin berikut secara bersamaan :

Poin A : Jika ada masalah saat beralih dari STS A ke STS B atau sebaliknya, Voltase Dip atau Tegangan Transien akan terdeteksi melalui PQ3198
Poin B : Jika daya hilang atau pulih sebelum STS A, titik pengukuran ini dapat mendeteksinya melalui pengukuran fasa tegangan
Poin C : Jika daya hilang atau pulih sebelum STS B, titik pengukuran ini dapat mendeteksinya melalui pengukuran fasa arus

Gambar 3.0 Titik Pengujian Static Transfer Switch (STS) dalam desain data center yang redundan

 

Tiga titik pengukuran memungkinkan korelasi pengalihan STS ke penurunan tegangan atau terjadinya tegangan transien. Gambar 4.0 dan Gambar 5.0 menunjukkan voltase dip dan tegangan transien yang ditangkap selama pengujian STS di data center redundan menggunakan Hioki PQ3198.

 

Gambar 4.0 Deteksi Voltase Dip
Gambar 5.0 Deteksi Tegangan Transien

 

Gambar 6.0 Analisis Dip dengan kurva ITIC menggunakan Software Hioki PQ ONE

Software Hioki PQ ONE memberikan analisis nilai tambah dari voltase dip dengan analisis kurva ITIC. Kurva ITIC berguna dalam menganalisis power quality yang masuk [4 ] – dalam hal ini, tegangan yang masuk ke peralihan daya. STS berisi penyearah untuk mengubah AC (dari UPS) ke DC untuk disimpan di kapasitor bus sebelum dikonversi ke tegangan yang diperlukan. Namun, selama insiden voltase dip atau tegangan transien, tegangan DC dapat menjadi sangat rendah atau sangat tinggi; ini dapat mempengaruhi pengoperasian beban. Gambar 6.0 menunjukkan analisis kurva ITIC menggunakan software Hioki PQ One dengan voltase dip yang diplot untuk setiap fase secara independen.

PQ3198 dilengkapi dengan fungsi HTTP Remote server yang memungkinkan pengguna untuk mengonfigurasi dan memantau instrumen dari browser. Pengambilan data jarak jauh juga mudah dengan fungsi server FTP bawaan.

Fungsi remote hanya dapat melalui router dan local data sim card yang terhubung dengan Hioki PQ3198.

Alternatif Produk Hioki untuk Pengujian STS

Hioki Memory HiCorders merupakan alternatif lain selain Power Quality Analyzer PQ3198 aplikasi yang tidak berbeda jauh. Selain memiliki kemampuan untuk mengukur voltase dip dan tegangan transien, produk ini juga memiliki beberapa kemampuan lain :
• Multi channels (hingga 32 analog channels)
• High vertical resolution (16 Bit)
• Waktu perekaman yang panjang
• Multi-modular
• Isolated channels

Di bawah ini adalah model Hioki Memory HiCorder yang sesuai dengan aplikasi :

Memory HiCorder MR8847A

Memory HiCorder MR8827

Memory HiCorder MR6000

Sistem penuh UPS redundan untuk data center tidak akan dapat beroperasi ke fungsi yang dimaksudkan kecuali Static Transfer Switches (STS) berfungsi sesuai dengan peruntukannya selama gangguan daya. Oleh karena itu, pengujian STS sangat penting untuk memastikan layanan peralatan pusat data tidak terganggu.

Info lebih lanjut terkait Hioki Power Quality Analyzer PQ3198, dapat Anda klik disini : Hioki Power Quality Analyzer PQ3198

Katalog Hioki PQ3198

 

 

 

 

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11 Sep 2020 : Mengukur Frekuensi Operasi RFID Menggunakan Hioki Impedance Analyzer seri IM758x

Mengukur Frekuensi Operasi RFID Menggunakan Hioki Impedance Analyzer IM758x

Apa itu RFID?

RFID atau singkatan dari Radio-frequency identification dan menggunakan medan elektromagnetik radio untuk mengirimkan informasi digital. Dikarenakan metode pengumpulan informasi dilakukan secara wireless dan tanpa kontak, teknologi ini menjadi sorotan selama pandemi, terutama di industri kesehatan dan pemasokan kebutuhan.

Baca : Hioki Power Quality Analyzer

Terdapat potensi besar dalam teknologi RFID belakangan ini karena dirasa mampu mengurangi kontak fisiik dan dapat menjadi upaya dalam melawan COVID-19.

Beberapa rumah sakit bahkan menggunakan teknologi RFID untuk memantau seberapa sering tenaga kesehatan mereka melakukan rutinitas cuci tangan.

Industri lain/aplikasi lain yang menggunakan teknologi RFID antara lain :

-Pemasok Kebutuhan Harian

-Passport

-Kartu Identitas

-Pembayaran Non-Tunai

-Industri Makanan

-Industri Kesehatan

-Industri Otomotif dan lainnya..

Frekuensi Operasi RFID : 

Frekuensi pengoresian RFID, atau dikenal sebagai IC tags maupun contactless IC cards, ditentukan oleh suatu standar. Saat melakukan pengukuran L dari alat yang digunakan oleh IC card tersentuh, pengukuran harus dilakukan di dekat frekuensi operasi 13.56 MHz.

Contoh pengaturan dari kondisi pengukuran

Mode PengukuranANALYZER
ParametersZ-θ frequency characteristics analysis(L-Q、R evaluation available)
Sweep parameterFREQ
Sweep frequencySweep measurement close to the operating frequency (lihat tabel di bawah)
Signal levelV mode 1V (350x, IM35xx series) atau 1dBm (IM758x series)

*Pengaturan di atas berlaku untuk contoh pengukuran. Karena kondisi optimal bervariasi dengan target pengukuran, pengaturan khusus harus ditentukan oleh operator instrumen.

Standar RFID

KategoriFrekuensiJarak EfektifStandar
ID cards13.56MHzUp to 10cm (Proximity applications)ISO14443
Automatic recognition125kHzUp to 70cm (Vicinity applications)ISO14443
13.56MHzISO15693

Struktur dari RFID tag

RFID umumnya terdiri dari antena dan IC. Transmisi sinyal dilakukan oleh sirkuit resonansi yang dibentuk oleh induktor antena (Ls) dan kapasitansi input (Cp) internal chip IC.

Frequency characteristics of defective and non-defective components

Seperti yang ditampilkan pada gambar, karakteristik frekuensi Z-θ dari komponen yang rusak dan tidak jelas berbeda. Komponen tidak rusak menunjukkan titik resonansi di dekat frekuensi operasi.

Produk yang digunakan

Aplikasi pada Production line dan R&D

Penilaian Pass/Fail Menggunakan Mode Analyzer

Salah satu dari dua metode dapat digunakan untuk menghasilkan penilaian pass/fail ketika menggunakan mode analyzer: penilaian puncak (peak) dan penilaian area.

https://www.hioki.com.sg/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Area-Judgement-1.png

Peak Judgement                                                              Area judgement

Penilaian Area (Area Judgement) dapat diatur seperti di bawah ini

Memastikan Konstanta Listrik Dengan Cara Analisis Rangkaian Ekuivalen

Fungsi analisis sirkuit ekuivalen instrumen dapat digunakan untuk menghitung konstanta dalam model sirkuit tiga terminal seperti antena RFID.

* Model A harus digunakan untuk kumparan dengan core loss (R) yang besar untuk memfasilitasi analisis yang lebih akurat.

Solar power generating systems are using Photovoltaic (PV) technology to absorb sunlight and convert it into electricity that we can use. The array of a photovoltaic power system, or PV system, produces direct current (DC) power which fluctuates with the sunlight’s intensity. For practical use this usually requires conversion to certain desired voltages or alternating current (AC), through the use of inverters. Some systems require a battery bank to store the solar electricity for use during night time or cloudy weather, a charge controller to protect the battery bank from overcharge.

Baca : Hioki Power Quality Analyzer

We can basically see that solar power generation is a complex system with many electrical parts involved so that we need to measure, monitor, analysis and record the measured data to maintain the system as well as to resolve the problems on a daily basis.

Figure 1: A solar power generation system diagram

Electrical testing

Digital multimeters (DMMs) and clamp meters are easy to use with standard voltage and current measurement for maintaining solar power systems.

Hioki DT4254 is dedicated for voltage measurement with high voltage up to DC1700V that is useful for PV system where the DC voltage is normally over 1000VDC.

Figure 2: DT4254 supports up to 1700VDC with Auto DCV polarity check Identify which string is being affected by the anomaly while continuing to sell power back to the grid.

At the junction box, use a Hioki CM4370 series AC/DC clamp meter to measure the current of each string generating power that’s being sold back to the grid. The string with the anomaly will have a noticeably lower current. Compare readings for strings in the same junction box and look any discrepancy to identify which string is being affected by the anomaly.

Figure 3: CM4371 for measuring solar power string current

Insulation resistance measurement of solar panels

When measuring the insulation resistance of a solar panel that is generating electricity, remember not to apply the standard method for measuring the circuit’s insulation resistance and bear in mind that the photovoltaic cell voltage affects the test voltage and that there is the risk of damaging other equipment if the array is grounded.

The Hioki IR4053 Insulation Tester can accurately measure insulation resistance without being affected by generating PV.

Figure 4: IR4053 with PV dedicated function for accurate, safe measurements

Measure insolation and temperature wirelessly

Hioki LR8515 mini data logger can be used as a method for wirelessly capturing actinometer and temperature data at the desired timing measurement.

Figure 5: Using LR8515 for capturing actinometer and temperature data

Manage the voltage of lead-acid storage batteries

The HIOKI LR8400-20 series with 30 channels as standard, expandable to 60 channels can be used to measure the voltage of lead-acid UPS battery cells used for solar power supply for monitoring voltage fluctuations.

Figure 6: LR8400 data logger in an online UPS monitoring system

Figure 6: LR8400 data logger in an online UPS monitoring system

Checking the amount of electricity sold and the power quality of solar power generation systems

The new Hioki PQ3100 Power Quality Analyzer can measure the amount of electricity sold and purchased simultaneously. The data allows you to confirm that the PV system works normally.

The PQ3100 can measure output of the power conditioner and display voltage and frequency changes. Demand and change graphs displayed in colour on the screen of the PQ3100 allow you to check the operation of the PV system on the spot.

Figure 7: Using PQ3100 for energy and power quality measurement

The PQ3100 is also used to measure all power quality parameters such as voltage/current RMS, voltage dip/swell, interruption, transient overvoltage, inrush current, power, frequency, voltage/current unbalance factor, harmonics simultaneously.

Evaluation of input and output characteristics of power conditioners

The PW6001 Power Analyzer can simultaneously measure and display multiple items including DC/AC voltage/current, voltage ripple factor, power, amount of power energy, power factor, voltage/current distortion factors, frequency, amount of power energy sold and purchased, voltage imbalance rate, and efficiency. It also displays voltage/current waveforms.

Figure 8: One PW6001 can perform completely synchronized measurement of input and output characteristics of power conditioners

Multi-string PV inverter efficiency measurement

PW6001 also can be used to measure the efficiency of multiple strings (arrays) and 50/60Hz output to the grid.

Figure 9: Using PW6001 for multi-string PV inverter efficiency measurement

As today’s information-centric society continues to evolve, smartphones and other mobile devices are operating at frequencies as high as several gigahertz in order to provide capabilities such as LTE, Wi-Fi, and GPS support. This trend in turn is driving up the frequencies of electronic components such as high-frequency inductors and ferrite beads that are used in those devices. The need to perform characteristics evaluations of these electronic components at high frequencies ranging from several hundred megahertz to several gigahertz is fueling demand for high-frequency measuring instruments.

Baca : Hioki Power Quality Analyzer

The newly available IM7587 can make measurements at even higher frequencies than the IM7585, which was launched last year (maximum measurement frequency is 1.3 GHz).The IM7587’s measurement frequency ranges from 1 MHz to 3 GHz, enabling it to measure today’s increasingly high-frequency electronic components.

Product Features

1. High-frequency measurement at up to 3 GHz
With a testing frequency of 1MHz to 3GHz, the Impedance Analyzer IM7587 can be used in a variety of applications.In particular, the instrument’s Analyzer Mode, which varies the frequency while making measurements, delivers minimal variability across a wide frequency range so as to ensure highly stable impedance evaluations, enabling it to meet applications in various fields from R&D to manufacturing.

2. Higher productivity thanks to high-stability, high-speed measurement in as little as 0.5 ms
The IM7587 can perform high-speed measurement in as little as 0.5 ms. For manufacturers of electronic components, who must test large quantities of components at high speeds, this capability translates into dramatically increased productivity.

Baca : Impedance analyzer

3. Lower production costs thanks to a more compact footprint
The IM7587 features a compact footprint. This enables electronic component manufacturers who build rack-mounted testing systems for automatic testing on production lines to construct smaller testing systems that pack more instruments into available rack space. The result is shorter testing 2times and lower production costs.In addition, the IM7587 represents the lightest and most portable measuring instrument in its class, taking up minimal workspace and making it ideal across a wide variety of applications including R&D, quality assurance and manufacturing.

4. Extensive functionality for generating pass/fail judgments
In LCR meter mode, in which the instrument makes measurements at a single frequency, the IM7587 offers a comparator function for generating pass/fail judgments for electronic components as well as a binning function for sorting components. The comparator function generates pass/fail judgments using upper and lower limit values set by the user as criteria. Whereas the comparator function generates judgments based on a single set of criteria, the binning function ranks components basing on up to 10 sets of criteria.

In analyzer mode, in which the instrument makes measurements at multiple frequencies, the IM7587 offers area judgment and peak judgment functionality for generating pass/fail judgments based on the frequency characteristics of the electronic component under test. Area judgment is used to check whether measured values for target components fall within a user-defined judgment area, while peak judgment provides functionality for judging resonance points.

The instrument also offers a new capability in its spot judgment function, which generates pass/fail judgments based on multiple user-configured frequency settings.

5. Long-awaited Hioki fixture set

This July, Hiokialso launched the SMD Fixture IM9201, which is indispensable for research and development as well as quality control.The IM9201 can test increasingly high frequency electronic components up to 3GHz, which when paired with the IM7587, brings real power to the field of component testing.

Basic Specifications
* Basic Accuracy: Z: 0.65% rdg.; q: 0.38 (representative value)
* Measurement time: Min. 0.5 ms (analog measurement)
* Measurement range: 100 mΩ to 5 kΩ
* Measurement frequency: 1 MHz to 3 GHz
* Measurement signal level: -40.0 dBm to +1.0 dBm (4 mV to 502 mV)

Principal Applications
* Shipping inspections and characteristics evaluations of electronic components
* Acceptance inspections and characteristics evaluations of electronic components
* Characteristics evaluations of electronic components at universities and research institutions

Currently, engineers use power quality analyzers to monitor and analyze power quality as they investigate the causes of electronic device malfunctions and failures triggered by power quality issues. Hioki’s newly launched PQ3100 introduces DC measurement support in response to increasingly widespread use of renewable energy. In addition, the new instrument meets customers’ measurement needs with features such as its Quick Set function, which guides users through the process of connecting and configuring theinstrument easily and reliably.

Why Power Quality Measurement?

As power electronics devices become more common and varied, the number of electronic device malfunctions and failures that can be traced back to power supply issues is rising. Detailed knowledge of the factors that cause such issues is necessary in order to combat them effectively, but such assessment is an extremely time-consuming task due to the large number of parameters that must be investigated and the advanced level of expertise required in order to do so. By using a power quality analyzer, technicians can accurately and efficiently identify the causes of these issues.

Baca : Hioki Power Quality Analyzer

Against this backdrop, renewable energy sources such as solar power and wind power have been entering into increasingly widespread use. Efforts are also underway to put build what is known as the “smart grid,” and the need to more stringently monitor increasingly complex power transmission systems is rising. Furthermore, improvements in the power environment in developing nations such as China, India, and the countries of Southeast Asia remain inadequate due to the inability of infrastructure development to keep pace with economic growth. Consequently, power issues are an everyday occurrence.

As a result of these and related factors, the need to monitor power quality is growing.

FEATURES OF THE PQ31001.

  1. AC/DC power measurement and power quality monitoring
    2DC measurement is required when dealing with renewable energy sources such as solar power, which are entering into increasingly widespread use. When used with AC/DC auto-zero current sensors, the PQ3100 can measure AC and DC currents while maintaining accuracy over extended periods of time.
  2. Easy, accurate connection and configuration with the Quick Set function, which guides the user through measurement procedures
    The PQ3100’s Quick Set function provides easy-to-understand guidance for measurement procedures. By using this function, customers can reliably connect and configure the instrument, a process which if not completedproperly can lead to measurement errors.
  3. More accurate analysis of issue causes thanks to the ability to record 11 seconds surrounding anomalous events
    In the event of an instantaneous power outage or a swell, in which the voltage rises abnormally, thePQ3100 can record waveforms for 1 second before and 10 seconds after the anomaly. Whereas the legacy Hioki PQA PW3198 only records these pre-and post-event waveforms for 1 second, the new PQA lets engineers analyze the causes of anomalies using waveformscaptured over a longer period of time.
  4. Robust support for customers’ analytical work thanks to a full-featured PC application
    Reflecting the fact that customers often use computers to analyze measurement data and create reports, the PQ3100 ships standard with PQ ONE, a new, dedicated application. PQ ONE augments the functionality provided by Hioki’s legacy PC application with new statistical functions that display the number of events detected by date and time. In this way, the application makes it easier to discover anomalies that occur during specific times of day or on specific days of the week.
  5. Extensive line of current sensors to accommodate a diverse range of customer needs
    Hiokioffers 10 types of current sensors for use with the PQ3100 in different applications, including AC current sensors, AC flexible current sensors, AC/DC auto-zero current sensors, and AC leak current sensors. In this way, the instrument can accommodate a diverse range of customer measurement needs.In addition, the PQ3100 can supply power to AC flexible current sensors (CT7044, CT7045, and CT7046) as well as AC/DC auto-zero current sensors (CT7731, CT7736, and CT7742). This capability eliminates the need to provide a separate AC adapter or battery for each sensor, simplifying wiring in the vicinity of the instrument and enabling long-term measurement.
  6. 6. CAT III (1000 V) safety and an operating temperature range of -20°C to 50°C
    The PQ3100 is designed to support CAT III (1000 V) and CAT IV (600 V) environments. (The legacy PW3198 supports only CAT IV 600 V environments.)In addition, the PQ3100 improves the PW3198’s operating temperature range of 0°C to 50°C, extending it to -20°C to 50°C to enable measurement in even low-temperature environments.
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